According to experts, 90% of the world’s languages are endangered
Over the years, the Mother Language Day has been dedicated to the relationship between the mother tongue and multilingualism, especially in education; braille and sign language; raising public awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions based on mutual understanding, tolerance and dialogue; safeguarding the intangible heritage of humanity and preserving cultural diversity; the role of the language of instruction in schools; and other topics.
Interesting facts about languages - Today there are more than 7 thousand languages in the world, and 43% of them are endangered. Only a few hundred languages play a prominent role in education systems and in the public sphere, and less than a hundred languages are used in the digital world.
– Every one to two weeks, one language disappears in the world, taking with it a whole cultural and intellectual heritage. According to experts, 90% of the world’s languages are endangered.
– 40% of the world’s population does not have the opportunity to receive education in a language they understand.
– Indonesian is one of the ten most spoken languages in the world, with most native speakers (247 million) not native. And this language appeared only at the beginning of the 20th century. It was based on Malay.
– Latin turned out to be much more “alive” than other dead languages. It is, along with the Italian state language, in the Vatican, and in many countries it is still in Latin that worship is performed.
– Swahili is understood throughout East Africa, and the rest of the world knows it through The Lion King. For 15 million people, he is native. Swahili is said to be “born on the ocean, grew up and matured in Tanzania, fell ill in Kenya, and died in Uganda and Congo.”
– Most of the world’s languages can be heard in Asia and Africa, they are rare and endangered. For example, 90% of languages are spoken by only 100 thousand people out of 7.5 billion of the world’s population. But the common ones are spoken by 66%.
– 400 languages in the world are currently recognized as endangered – each of them is spoken by about 50 people in the world. There are also those who are spoken by only one person – they are practically doomed. Scientists have proven that for the successful development of a language, about a million people must speak it. There are only 250 languages with so many speakers in the world.
– But there are also opposite cases – the revival of languages. A striking example is Hebrew, which was considered dead. Now there are about 9 million people who speak it, and 6 million recognize it as their family.
– Mandarin Chinese is considered the champion of the world’s languages, with 845 million native speakers, which is 2.5 times more than native English speakers. Interestingly, English is considered compulsory for all students in China, starting in the third grade. In America, only 3 percent of primary schools and 4 percent of secondary schools offer Chinese language instruction.
Every year in Russia they see off the winter and celebrate Maslenitsa. The editorial staff of the portal “Russian Education” remembered some facts related to the history and celebration of this national holiday.
In the days of paganism, Maslenitsa week fell on the spring solstice and was a meeting of the New Year. It is believed that it was from there that the saying went: how you meet the New Year, so you will spend it. Apparently, such a rich program of weekly celebrations is connected with this. Everyone wanted a bold next year.
The burning of the Maslenitsa effigy, which personified the ancient deity, takes place on the seventh day of Maslenitsa week. It was believed that burning it and scattering its ashes over the fields would bring a good harvest and general prosperity. The ancient Slavs celebrated the New Year in March, and Maslenitsa just fell on the change of years.
There is a version that initially there were two stuffed animals – Maslenik and Maslenitsa. They symbolized certain deities and were like the bride and groom.
With the advent of Christianity, the Church preferred to shift the dates of Lent before Easter, thereby canceling the celebration of Maslenitsa. At the same time, it acquired another name – Cheese Week.
Pancakes for Shrovetide is a custom that existed long before Christianity. According to the most common version, the pancakes symbolized the sun.
Shrovetide in other countries
The tradition of seeing off the winter and having a tasty meal also exists in Denmark, Norway, America and the UK.
The inhabitants of Denmark carried the traditions of preparation for long fasting through the centuries. Unlike the Slavic Maslenitsa, pancakes are not baked in Denmark, preferring buns with raisins and candied fruits. They are abundantly decorated, sprinkled with sugar, cinnamon, oil and cream.
Norwegian Maslenitsa is also different from the Slavic one. To make winter go away faster, the Norwegians jokingly whip each other with birch “Shrovetide branches” decorated with flowers, wrapped in paper. According to ancient tradition, this symbolizes the awakening of nature from winter sleep.
During Shrovetide, a butter sandwich is very popular with Norwegians. It used to be thought: the more you bite off of it, the richer the harvest will be.
The United States does not celebrate the seven-day Shrovetide, but pancakes are treated with great respect. The Americans even allocated a special day for this treat – International Pancake Day (February 21).
Catherine II once staged the “Diamond Pancake Week”. She donated 150 stones to the winners in various competitions. Eyewitnesses wrote that the diamonds were distinguished by their rare beauty, purity and cut. In short, the stones were very expensive. Historians timed such an unprecedented generosity of Catherine’s joy to the birth of her grandson.
The tallest stack of pancakes – 76 cm high – was built by Australian chef Andy Robel. Prior to that, the tallest pile was considered to be a structure only 2 centimeters lower.
Mike Kuzzacrea ran a 42 km marathon in 3 hours 2 minutes 27 seconds, tossing a pancake in a pan and never dropped it.
Dominik Kuzzakrea threw a pancake to a height of 9.47 meters in 2010. And then I caught him in the same frying pan.
In 2002, the most massive pancake celebration took place in Moscow on Maslenitsa. A special machine was built that produced a 20 cm wide edible dairy-flour belt fried on both sides. The device worked for 2 hours 52 minutes. The result was one long pancake, which 5 thousand 620 people could treat themselves to.
The record for the fastest eating pancakes belongs to a Russian from the town of Lakhta. He swallowed 73 pancakes in just 60 minutes. In weight equivalent, this is 2 kilograms of the product.
August is the final month of summer holidays. How do the essay on my favourite national hero children who remain in the city spend them? The correspondent of the portal “Russian Education” was told about this in the press service of the Department of Labor and Social Protection of the Population of the city of Moscow, where a special project “Moscow Smena” has been implemented for several years.
How many children are covered by the Moscow Smena project in the summer of 2019?
It is planned that about 25 thousand Moscow children aged from 7 to 14 years old, including children with disabilities, will have a rest in the three summer months under the Moscow Smena program of active children’s recreation.
The program is being implemented on the basis of 246 sites of organizations of the Department of Education, the Department of Sports and the Department of Labor and Social Protection of the Moscow population.
The first shift took place on the grounds of schools, sports and social protection institutions. During the second shift, the children rested in social welfare and sports organizations. The third shift is organized as a social one, and all events take place in social welfare institutions.
How has interest in the project grown since 2016? Do the children who participated in one shift come to the next shift or the next year?
The Moscow Smena program was launched in the summer of 2016 and immediately gained popularity among both children and parents. It gives the children the opportunity not only to relax during the summer holidays, but also to learn a lot of new things. This format of children’s recreation is especially relevant for families who, for some reason, cannot send a child to a country camp or to a grandmother in the village. An extensive educational and developmental program has been prepared at the playgrounds for children, which includes cultural and sports events, visits to museums, theaters, concerts and major attractions of the capital, master classes, meetings with interesting people and much more.
About 30–40% of children who have attended the “Moscow shift” come the next year. Since 2016, the number of participants in the program has grown by about 2,000 children.
The interest in the program and its increasing popularity is evidenced by the fact that since 2019 the program of active children’s recreation “Moscow Smena” has become permanent (Decree of the Moscow Government of May 21, 2019 No. 527-PP).
It is known that for some reason a child may be expelled from the camp. Have there already been cases of expulsion and can another child get to the place of the expulsion?
A child may cease to be a member of the Moscow Smena program: upon the personal application of the parents; if the child has not attended the shift for more than 3 working days in a row and has not provided a certificate from a medical organization; if an agreement has been concluded on the provision of services for the organization of a child’s city recreation with another institution, on the basis of which the “Moscow shift” is also organized.